Experienced firefighters and men in their prime served in WWII, prompting the U.S. Forest Service to appeal to the American public to take an active role in fire prevention.
Little Smokey Bear, who was rescued and brought back to health, became the real life symbol for all Americans, especially school children. He lived at the National Zoo, and was so popular that he received more than 13,000 letters per week. The Postal Service granted him his own zip code, which is still in use today. The first Smokey Bear died in November 1976.
Smokey II, also an orphaned bear cub, was the second live representation of Smokey Bear from 1975 to his death in 1990. Photo: U.S. Department of Agriculture / Flickr
Today, fire prevention is even more crucial than ever before, with an increasing number of out of control fires burning longer and destroying larger swaths of our precious forests.
Yesterday I found another dead Brood X cicada on our front porch. It has been 12 days since I saw the last one. In recent weeks, the sudden stop of the loud buzzing created by billions of cicadas in 15 Eastern states saddened me. Baltimore County residents who were upset by the din, (which often reached an earsplitting level of 105.9 decibels), felt only relief.
Male cicadas vibrate their tymbals, located on each side of their abdomens, to generate mating noises also known as Crepitation. Females can hear their suitors as far as a mile away. The modern English term of cicada is derived from the Latin word cicada, meaning “buzzer.” The term itself is an onomatopoeia, or a word that mimics the buzzing sound the male insect makes. Females emit a less noisy ticking sound.
In June, 2021, one and a half million cicadas per acre emerged from the ground in Baltimore County as juvenile nymphs.
Holes left behind from cicada emergence, Woodbridge, VA. Image Wikimedia Commons.
After they transform into adults with wings, cicadas discard their final molts, a hard shell known as an exoskeleton that supports the insects in various stages of growth. They then search for a mate. (Read this informative article about Brood X’s life cycle and view the beautiful illustrations in Scientific American).
These days I miss the sights and sounds of these beautiful creatures. For six weeks, scores of males and females buzzed and flew around like drunken sailors on leave, and landing wherever their weak silvery, orange-rimmed wings led them, at times only on asphalt.
The YouTube video below records the 17 year cicadas sounds in groups and individually. In one instance, the narrator is wrong in stating that cicada eggs are laid in the ground. Female ovipositors lay them in tree branches, but the rest of this short video is accurate.
After they emerged, I caught a number of these strange insects on driveways and streets (and on my neck, face, and body), and gently placed them on tree branches or trunks to help them fulfill their destiny. Many in my family were not as equally enamored and swatted them away. Some people suffering from entomophobia were truly scared of them. [Fear of cicadas is real and common. It’s also far from unfounded. Washington Post].
There are 7 species of periodical cicadas, one was recently described. There are 3 species in the Washington, DC area. There are also annual cicada species (that are green) that come out every year.” National Park Service (NPS)
During an outdoor Forestry Board meeting in the second week of June, our group’s discussions could hardly be heard above the din of the male insects. Linda B, one of our board members, explained that cicadas drowned out the voices of other mating creatures, such as birds and frogs, prompting them to also raise the volume of their calls. I especially adored the loud croaking bullfrogs.
The Cicada Cycle
The birth-to-death cycle of the cicada Brood X is a miracle of nature. After the insects emerged in late May/early June, they provided abundant, protein rich meals for the creatures who ate them. Our birds, foxes, snakes, ants, raccoons, pets, and similar opportunists must have sated themselves on a seemingly endless buffet. This phenomenon is known as predator satiation. Usually predators are not too finicky when catching prey, but during this sumptuous feasting period, many only ate bits and pieces before gorging on another cicada body.
Various states of eaten and uneated cicadas; some still with legs, some with heads missing, others with bodies only. Wings universally discarded. Image by Vic Sanborn
These silvery wings were almost universally discarded in our yard. Image by Vic Sanborn
Three cicada bodies in mulch partially eaten. Photo by Vic Sanborn
Headless cicada body, head only with wings, legs only with wings.
[Images of body parts left by predators. From left to right: click on bottom of image to read the caption or click on an image to view a slide show.]
Cicada emergence came in defined stages:
“The perception is once they come up, you get a big number. And as they start to go away, you think it’s over, then here it comes again like a tsunami…But one species will arrive in big numbers first, another in the middle and a third toward the end.” Insights, OSU.edu
Currently, scientists can only make educated guesses on how climate change will affect their behavior or their overwhelming quantities in the future. Still, the cicadas’ enormous numbers ensured that enough survived to mate and lay eggs to reemerge in the billions in 2038.
Flagging occurs when, after mating, females deposit their eggs through an ovipositor that gouges slits in branches in which they deposit their eggs. She lays from 200-400 eggs per hole. The nymphs hatch after six weeks before falling to the ground.
Twigs with many slits often break or hang down from trees, a condition known as flagging.
Leaves on the affected branches turn brown, a tell tale sign, but younger trees may completely succumb to the devastation unless protected.
One could think of flagging as nature’s way of pruning mature trees. Young saplings might be overwhelmed because their tender branches are more susceptible to the damage caused by the female’s ovipositors. (Read this article from the Master Gardeners of Northern Virginia: Managing Cicada Damage to Trees).
Young tree protected by netting. Image, Towson, by Vic Sanborn
Young tree overwhelmed by flagging. Near old Bosley Road, image by Vic Sanborn
Hover your cursor over both images above to read descriptions.
“In many cases, the patchiness of the emergence has to do with females being choosy about which habitat to lay eggs in. Lill says they appear to prefer areas with full sun exposure, especially forest edges. – NPR
“Cicadas have been known to lay eggs on over 200 types of trees to some extent. Some common trees that are most susceptible to cicada damage include oaks (Quercus), maples (Acer), cherry (Prunus), and other fruit trees, hawthorn (Crataegus), and redbud (Cercis). Evergreens are rarely used for egg laying.” – University of Maryland Extension, UMD.edu
Some cicadas prefer maple, oak, hickory, beech, ash, willow, dogwood, hawthorn, magnolia, apple, pear, peach and cherry as host trees.- Ohio State extension
The photo example above is of a Magicicada septendecula, the cicada species (Brood X) commonly found in Baltimore County, which has thin orange stripes on the underside of its abdomen. This was the last cicada I found in my yard, dead, but not yet eaten. This image is of a female: note the point at the end of her abdomen. Her ovipositor is retracted.
Around six weeks after eggs are deposited in branch slits, cicada nymphs drop to the ground and burrow into the soil, where they feed off tree sap for sustenance underground until reemergence. seventeen years later. During this crucial time, the public should not remove flags that have fallen into their yards and woods until mid-August to allow the maximum number of cicada nymphs to burrow.
It’s an unusually tense time for bird watchers. Many varieties of songbirds are dying at alarming rates due to neurological issues. The deaths are reported in Mid-Atlantic States and Ohio and Pennsylvania.
These warnings have been ongoing since March of this year. The birds most affected are starlings, grackles, blue jays, and robins. Audubon Magazine states that scientists are still searching for the pathogen behind the disease. Meanwhile, we are asked to take down our feeders until the source of the disease is identified.
“Ecologist Suzanne Simard says trees are “social creatures” that communicate with each other in remarkable ways — including warning each other of danger and sharing nutrients at critical times. Her book is ‘Finding the Mother Tree.'” Click here to go to the podcast.
Read: Do Trees Talk to Each Other?, Richard Grant, photographs by Diana Markosian, Smithsonian Magazine, March 2018. Image of Suzanne Simard by D. Markosian, Smithsonian Magazine.
In addition, read The Hidden Life of Trees: What They Feel, How They Communicate―Discoveries from A Secret World (The Mysteries of Nature, 1), by Peter Wohlleben (Author), Jane Billinghurst (Translator), Tim Flannery, Greystone Books; First English Language Edition, 8th Printing (September 13, 2016).
This article by Paul Bogard, Spring 2021, discusses the billions of birds that fly north in the spring, some on an 8,000 mile trek. Imagine.
Many fly in the dark, which most of us who belong to the forestry boards, already know.
Habitat destruction, collisions with buildings, declines in insect abundance—the threats to migrants are many, and the question has become: Can new tracking technologies help to unravel the mysteries of nocturnal migration while we still have time to preserve one of the world’s great natural wonders?
This is a time fraught with danger for migrating birds. The impact of climate change resulted in that the “peak migration in spring and fall came sooner and coincided with higher temperatures in the continental United States.” This disruption puts the migrants increasingly at risk, such as the lights of skyscrapers at night that confuse migrating birds, disorienting them, and causing their collisions with the buildings, killing them in billions of numbers.
Bogard’s is a detailed article well worth reading for those of us who consider how climate change affects our bird species and mother earth.
If you have not watched “Winged Migration,” a film produced in 2001, it is breathtaking. It made my heart soar. The film, which covers bird migration all over the world, is more than ten times longer than this preview.
You can rent the film online for a pittance if you have not seen it before.
On April 20th, 2021, the BCFB gathered to sort and bag four varieties of chestnut seedlings for distribution across the state. Click on this link to our American Chestnuts page to learn more about our mission. These images demonstrate the Board’s work to join with the American Chestnut Foundation in reinvigorating this magnificent tree species. (Hover cursor over the images to read the captions. Click on any image and forward the slide show by clicking on the back and forth arrows.)
Bundles of chestnuts labeled “sunshine”
Richard encourages us to Plant Trees
Linda, Carol, Rob, and Richard sorting four sets of chestnuts into each bag, whose roots are properly watered
Carol and Julie making sure that the chestnuts have been sorted, properly labeled, and will go into the bags meant for the customers who ordered the chestnut seedlings
Plunging the roots one last time into water before being bagged. Notice the “soil moist” nodules that form as the roots get saturated.
Linda and Rob mixing the chemicals and water that will keep the chestnut roots wet in their bags.
Richard, Carol, and Rob bundling the chestnuts
Linda holds a “sunshine” seedling
Richard sorting chesnut seedling bundles, that are watered regularly by Rob to keep the roots moist
Julie writing labels and making sure each chestnut seedling is identified and goes to the right person